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What to do if you think you have it

If you live in or have traveled to an area where COVID-19 is spreading:

  • If you don’t feel well, stay home.
  • Call the doctor if you have trouble breathing.
  • Follow your doctor’s advice and keep up with the news on COVID-19

Types of corona virus

There are seven types of human corona viruses:

  • 229E
  • NL63
  • OC43
  • HKU1
  • MERS-CoV
  • SARS-CoV
  • 2019-nCoV
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Preventions

Take these steps:

  • Stay home.
  • Wash your hands often and thoroughly.
  • Use an alcohol-based hand sanitizer. 
  • Avoid touching your face.
  • Practice social distancing.
  • Seek regular updates.



Symptoms of COVID-19

The main symptoms include:

  • Fever
  • Coughing
  • Shortness of breath
  • Trouble breathing
  • Fatigue
  • Chills
  • Body aches
  • Headache
  • Sore throat
  • Loss of smell or taste
  • Nausea
  • Diarrhea
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WHO’s Guildlines

The COVID-19 pandemic is straining health systems worldwide. The rapidly increasing demand on health facilities and health care workers threatens to leave some health systems overstretched and unable to operate effectively.

Previous outbreaks have demonstrated that when health systems are overwhelmed, mortality from vaccine-preventable and other treatable conditions can also increase dramatically. During the 2014-2015 Ebola outbreak, the increased number of deaths caused by measles, malaria, HIV/AIDS, and tuberculosis attributable to health system failures exceeded deaths from Ebola. 

“The best defense against any outbreak is a strong health system,” stressed WHO Director-General Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus. “COVID-19 is revealing how fragile many of the world’s health systems and services are, forcing countries to make difficult choices on how to best meet the needs of their people.”

To help countries navigate through these challenges, the World Health Organization (WHO) has updated operational planning guildlines in balancing the demands of responding directly to COVID-19 while maintaining essential health service delivery, and mitigating the risk of system collapse. This includes a set of targeted immediate actions that countries should consider at national, regional, and local level to reorganize and maintain access to high-quality essential health services for all.

Countries should identify essential services that will be prioritized in their efforts to maintain continuity of service delivery and make strategic shifts to ensure that increasingly limited resources provide maximum benefit for the population. They also need to comply with the highest standard in precautions, especially in hygiene practices, and the provision of adequate supplies including personal protective equipment This requires robust planning and coordinated actions between governments and health facilities and their managers.

Some examples of essential services include: routine vaccination; reproductive health services including care during pregnancy and childbirth; care of young infants and older adults; management of mental health conditions as well as noncommunicable diseases and infectious diseases like HIV, malaria and TB; critical inpatient therapies; management of emergency health conditions; auxiliary services like basic diagnostic imaging, laboratory services, and blood bank services, among others.

Well-organized and prepared health systems can continue to provide equitable access to essential service delivery throughout an emergency, limiting direct mortality and avoiding increased indirect mortality.   

The guidelines stress the importance of keeping up-to-date information. This requires frequent transparent communications with the public, and strong community engagements so the public   can maintain trust in the system to safely meet their essential needs and to control infection risk in health facilities. This will help ensure that people continue to seek care when appropriate, and adhere to public health advice.


FAQs by Indian Govt.

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EXTRA
KNOWLEDGE ON CORONA

  1. Coronavirus can infect you within 5 to 50 minutes:

An analysis of an Associate Professor of Biology at the University of Massachusetts Dartmouth has revealed that the COVID-19 infection can spread within 5 minutes to 50 minutes.Professor Erin S. Bromage’s analysis of spreading of the Coronavirus infection stated that just more than 10 minutes of exposure to an infected person in a face to face situation can potentially get anyone infected and sharing a space with an infected person, for example, office, for a longer period will get such person or people potentially infected. Sneezes and coughs of such infected people can infect a whole room of people. That is why, he says, it becomes mandatory for symptomatic people to stay home. Erin gave an insight into how fast can a person get infected from the virus. In his analysis Erin talks about a formula – Successful Infection = Exposure to Virus x Time. It means that a successful infection depends upon the exposure to a number of virus particles for a particular period of time. Based on various infectious diseases’ studies, Erin said that some experts estimate that as few as 1000 SARS-CoV2 infectious viral particles are needed to get someone infected. 

*Coughing and sneezing:- As per Erin’s analysis, a single cough releases about 3,000 droplets. Most of these droplets drop on the ground quickly but many stay in the air. Droplets through cough travel at 50 miles per hour which means the airborne droplets can travel across the room in few seconds. He further analysed that a single sneeze releases about 30,000 droplets, most of them small and can travel easily across a room at 200 miles per hour. Erin concludes that droplets in a single cough or sneeze of an infected person may contain as many as 20,00,00,000 virus particles which can all be dispersed in the environment around them. 
So, during a face-to-face conversation with an infected person, if he sneezes or coughs it is quite possible to inhale 1000 virus particles easily and get infected. Even in case of indirect cough or sneeze, the smallest of infectious droplets can fill the room and a person coming into the room within few minutes of such sneeze or cough can potentially receive enough virus through a few breaths to get infected.

*Breathing: Erin observed that one breath can release 50-5000 droplets. Citing a few studies he said that influenza can release up to 33 infectious viral particles per minute. But for SARS-CoV2 Erin kept the number at 20. He said that if every viral particle is inhaled (unlikely), it will take 50 minutes to get one infected. Erin further observed that speaking increases the release of respiratory droplets about 10 fold which means 200 virus particles per minute. So, while talking face to face if every viral particle is inhaled, 5 minutes of such conversation can be a sufficient dose for infection.

2. Diabetes patients having COVID-19 need to control blood sugar:

Novel study adds to the evidence that people with type 2 diabetes (T2D) are at greater risk of a poor outcome if they contract the virus that causes COVID-19. But there is some encouraging news: people with T2D whose blood sugar is well-controlled fare much better than those with poorly controlled blood sugar.According to senior author Hongliang Li of Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, “We were surprised to see such favourable outcomes in well-controlled blood glucose group among patients with COVID-19 and pre-existing type 2 diabetes.””Considering that people with diabetes had a much higher risk for death and various complications, and there are no specific drugs for COVID-19, our findings indicate that controlling blood glucose well may act as an effective auxiliary approach to improve the prognosis of patients with COVID-19 and pre-existing diabetes,” he said. The study was published in the journal Cell Metabolism. More than 500 million people around the world have T2D. While it was clear that people with this condition fare worse with COVID-19, Li and colleagues wondered what role a person`s blood glucose control might have on those outcomes.To find out, they conducted a retrospective longitudinal multi-centre study including 7,337 confirmed COVID-19 cases enrolled among 19 hospitals in Hubei Province, China. Of those, 952 people had T2D. Among those with diabetes, 282 had well-controlled blood glucose; the other 528 did not.The data showed that people admitted to the hospital with COVID-19 and T2D required more medical interventions. Despite those interventions, they also had significantly higher mortality (7.8% vs 2.7%) as well as a greater incidence of multiple organ injury. However, those with well-controlled blood sugar and COVID-19 were less likely to die than those whose blood glucose was poorly controlled. Meanwhile, those with well-managed T2D also received less of other medical interventions including supplemental oxygen and/or ventilation and had fewer health complications.

The researchers say the new findings offer three main messages for people with diabetes:

1) People with diabetes have a higher risk to die from COVID-19 and develop more severe complications after infection. Therefore, they should take extra precautions to avoid becoming infected.

2) People with diabetes should take extra care to keep their blood sugar under good control during the pandemic.

3) Once infected, patients with diabetes should have their blood glucose level controlled to maintain it in the right range, in addition to any other needed treatments.

The researchers say they will continue to study the relationship between T2D and COVID-19 outcomes. The hope is to learn more about the underlying biology that is leading to poorer outcomes for people with T2D and high blood sugar. 

3. Here are some tips on maintaining good immunity during COVID-19 pandemic through Yoga:

1. Tadasana

Tadasana or Mountain Pose is a standing asana in modern yoga as exercise. It is the basis for several other standing asanas.

2. Skandha Chakra

Skandra Chakra is a basic warm up movement which is done to  warm up the shoulders and upper back. This asana is included in all types of yoga at all levels.

3. Kati Chakrasana

Kati Chakrasana is a standing pose with a spinal twist. The pose begins in a standing position with the feet apart and the arms are extended in front with the palms facing and thumbs toward the sky. The body then twists to one side with the arm leading the twist wrapping around the back to rest on the opposite hip. 

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